Chemistry Chemistry for the IB Diploma for the IB Diploma Steve Owen This lively coursebook offers complete and thorough coverage of the Biology syllabus for. Chemistry for the IB Diploma.. [Christopher Talbot; Richard Harwood; Christopher Coates] -- Provide clear guidance to the changes and. for the IB Diploma Coursebook with free additional online material Second edition The second edition of this well-received coursebook is fully.

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Chemistry for the IB Diploma Coursebook (IB Diploma series) by Steve Owen. Read online, or download in secure PDF format. IB Diploma Chemistry HL - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Read "Chemistry for the IB Diploma Second Edition" by Richard Harwood available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. Provide.

There is a non-bonding pair of electrons on each nitrogen atom. Example 4: This must be included in consideration of hybridized orbitals. The s orbital and three p orbitals of nitrogen mix to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals.

The ammonia molecule is trigonal pyramidal in shape. In addition there is a non-bonding pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom.

IB Diploma Chemistry HL Textbook.pdf

N2H4 In hydrazine. Each of the two nitrogen atoms in hydrazine exhibits sp3 hybridization. NH3 In ammonia. H2O In more recent times it has been used as the propellent for rocket manoeuvring thrusters.

Chem complement the NASA space shuttles.

In World War II. If the 2s orbital and two 2p orbitals are mixed. The s orbital and three p orbitals of oxygen mix to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals. These three equal covalent bonds can be explained by the existence of hybrid orbitals.

While it is commonly used in the synthesis of other chemicals. It has three electrons in its valence shell and will form three covalent bonds with elements such as hydrogen BH3 and fluorine BF3.

The water molecule is V-shaped. Liquid hydrazine has a density of 1. Hydrazine and life on Mars The development and launch of the Phoenix lander was a collaborative project between universities from USA.

In addition there are two non-bonding pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom. The lander arrived on Mars on 26 May and searched for environments suitable for microbial life. This results in a trigonal planar arrangement. We can expect sp2 hybridization to occur whenever there is a trigonal planar arrangement of atoms around a central atom. The sp2 hybrid orbitals will be arranged around the central atom boron in such as way as to minimize electrostatic repulsion.

The fourth orbital. H Figure 2. Although carbon has four orbitals in the valence shell. Example 6: Ethene Ethene. This results in a linear arrangement. The third sp2 hybrid orbital on each nitrogen atom is occupied by a non-bonding pair of electrons. The shape of these molecules is linear.

In order for two equal bonds to be made. This results in the molecule having a bent linear shape. Example 7: N2H2 This compound has a double bond between the two nitrogen atoms and one hydrogen atom bonded to each nitrogen atom.

In beryllium hydride.

It makes two equal-sized bonds with elements such as hydrogen and the halogens. These orbitals will be arranged in such as way as to minimize electrostatic repulsion. Only two of the valence shell orbitals of carbon 2s. C2H2 Ethyne. The third orbital 2py and the fourth orbital 2pz exist in two different planes to the hybrid orbitals.

Example 8: The remaining p orbitals.

No matter how many scientists confirm a theory through well-controlled experiments. The body of science is not. In truth. Each time we learn something new and surprising.

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Example 9: Do you think there is anything that scientific theories will never explain or will science one day give us the answers to everything. We are always. Lewis Thomas — an American physician wrote: Science is founded on uncertainty. October H2O O H 3 0 sp2 Borane.

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BeH2 Be H 2 0 sp Ethyne. Resonance structures In the case of some molecules and ions. In your answer you should also account for any non-bonding pairs of electrons. A Lewis structure in which there is one O—O single bond and one O—O double bond meets the requirements of eight valence electrons on each oxygen atom. The doubleheaded arrow is used to indicate that the real molecule is described by an average of the two resonance structures. The resonance structures of ozone are shown below.

Neither Lewis structure on its own truly represents the molecule. To explain the two equal O—O bond lengths of 0. Each oxygen atom in ozone has six valence electrons and needs to make two bonds to complete the valence octet. This average of the two structures is called a resonance hybrid. A set of resonance structures shows a number of Lewis structures that are equivalent. Describe the hybridization of orbitals around the carbon atom and around the oxygen atoms.

Explain how the geometry of the sp3 hybridization agrees with that suggested by the Lewis structure of methane. Usually in such cases. NO3— There are three equivalent Lewis structures that can be drawn for the nitrate ion. Nitrite ion. All three Lewis structures.

There are two equivalent Lewis structures for the nitrite ion. In each case the arrangement of atoms is the same. Carbonate ion.

Nitrate ion. While two resonance structures are possible for any carboxylate ion. The ethanoate ion is typical of a carboxylate ion. The length of the C—C bonds in benzene were found using X-ray crystallography to actually be equal in length 0. To represent the true structure. Ethanoate ion. After graduating. Later work in X-ray diffraction measured all of the bond lengths in benzene to be the same.

Kathleen married Thomas Lonsdale in and combined her work in science with motherhood. Her work in X-ray crystallography confirmed the structure of benzene as being that of a planar hexagonal ring of carbon atoms.

C6H6 In As a pacifist. She also worked on the synthesis of diamond and lonsdaleite. She was educated in England. Kathleen Lonsdale was made professor of Chemistry at University College. Edward de Bono is regarded by many as the leading authority in the field of creative thinking.

Without a clear understanding of its structure. One day while travelling home on the bus from his laboratory. Up until chemists did not really know what organic molecules looked like at the molecular level. Distinguish between the two. His theory met widespread approval from fellow chemists. When he woke he had a flash of inspiration. How do you think his experiences of language and art might have helped him as a chemist? One of the snakes caught hold of its tail and made a ring-like formation.

Sometimes to make a scientific breakthrough. The hybridization that matches this geometry is sp2. This equality of bonds in benzene agrees with the experimentally determined bond length of 0. The third p orbital of each carbon is perpendicular to the plane of the sp2 hybrids and has one electron in it.

Benzene In a benzene molecule. We can assign sp2 hybridization to it.

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Explain this observation using the concept of resonance. Formed by No.

Use this information to discuss whether the observed bond angles are consistent with this resonance structure of the methanoate ion. C6H5CH3 c 2-methylbutene. C3H6 b methyl benzene. It is obtained from shark liver and also from some botanical sources such as wheat germ and olives.

It does not have a cyclic structure. Explain this observation by considering the hybridization of the nitrogen atoms in the two molecules. How do these structures differ from the structure shown? II It has two lone pairs of electrons on the N atom. III and IV in the following molecules?

I It can be represented by resonance structures. What is the approximate hybridization of N in each of the species? Which statements are correct? B Double bonds are weaker than single bonds.

III The N atom is sp2 hybridized. HNNH The structures of the above compounds are: H H H a Explain the meaning of the term hybridization. State and explain the bond angles in each of the three compounds.

The chlorides and oxides of period 3 elements The bonding and structure of the chlorides and oxides of the period 3 elements can be used to explain the physical states of these compounds.

The trends in the physical properties of electronegativity.

P eriodicity is the term used for how the properties of elements are repeated. As the strength of the bond between the ions in an ionic lattice or between the covalent molecules increases. Metallic oxides are basic because when they react with water they produce an alkaline solution: In this chapter we will investigate the properties of the compounds formed by period 3 elements. This acidity is shown when the oxide dissolves in water. Between groups 2 and 3 is a large block of elements called the transition metals.

When considering the oxides of the period 3 elements. In chapter 3 of Chemistry: You will recall that the periodic table is divided into vertical columns called groups and horizontal rows called periods. When these compounds are melted.

The structure of aluminium chloride is that of an ionic layer lattice. The strong electrostatic attraction between the metal and non-metal ions in three dimensions results in high melting and boiling points. The ionic compound is an electrolyte and the result is the decomposition of the compound by electrolysis into its constituent elements. When a potential difference is applied. This is a much lower melting point than the other metallic chlorides.

Table 3. PCl3 and PCl5. Non-gem quality samples of corundum can be used as an abrasive in industry and are embedded in sandpaper. It is very dense and very hard—it is the second hardest material after diamond. In its crystalline form it is called corundum see Chem Complement. Every bond within that structure is a single covalent bond in which a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. Under standard conditions aluminium chloride will not melt. This molecular structure means that it does not conduct electricity.

It is a liquid under standard conditions. These gemstones can have a range of colours. Figure 3. Most corundum occurs as white. Molten aluminium oxide conducts electricity well.

Chemistry for the IB Diploma.

At high temperatures the dimers dissociate. Ferric oxide. It is this property that allows molten alumina to be electrolysed to produce aluminium metal. Aluminium oxide. The AlCl3 molecules form dimers in the liquid state. AlCl3 does not conduct electricity at all. Chromic oxide. This can be attributed to its covalent molecular structure.

When molten. The great strength of these bonds means that silicon dioxide has a very high melting point and so is a solid under standard conditions. A rare variety is the orange sapphire that is also called padparascha.

Red corundum is called ruby. Two dative covalent bonds are formed when a non-bonding electron pair on a chlorine atom of one AlCl3 molecule is shared with the aluminium atom of the second AlCl3 molecule in the dimer. Titanium oxide also causes an effect called asterism.

Chem complement What does sandpaper have in common with rubies and sapphires? Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide. These sapphires were separated from river gravel by panning. Like sulfur trioxide it does not conduct electricity. Chlorine dioxide. Both are molecular in nature and do not conduct electricity in the liquid state. There are no freemoving charged particles. Chlorine gas. The coating of silicon dioxide that occurs naturally on the surface of silicon is valued for its properties as an electrical insulator.

P4O6 and P4O Sulfur dichloride. Phosphorus chlorides are covalent in nature. P4O10 and phosphorus III oxide. Dichlorine heptoxide.

Silicon chloride does not conduct electricity in its liquid state due to the absence of charged particles ions or electrons that are free to move. Chlorine forms a number of oxides that have a tendency to explode. There are two oxides of phosphorus. The molecules of silicon chloride are non-polar. Argon does not form chlorides or oxides due to its complete valence shell of electrons.

As molecules in the liquid state. Their molecular shapes are trigonal pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal respectively. Dichlorine oxide. Phosphorus III chloride is slightly polar.

The phosphorus chlorides and oxides are covalently bonded molecular substances and so do not conduct electricity in the liquid state.

Phosphorus III chloride. Each sodium ion is surrounded by water molecules. Magnesium chloride behaves in a similar manner in water. Sodium chloride dissolves in water to form a neutral solution. This results in the formation of hexaaquamagnesium ions. The reactions of chlorine and the chlorides with water The sodium ions and the chloride ions are surrounded by water molecules and become part of the solution. The reaction that occurs can be represented as: When anhydrous aluminium chloride reacts with a small amount of water.

When added to a large amount of water. This manner of reacting is typical of covalent chlorides. PCl3 and PCl5 react with water—they are hydrolysed. The hydrogen chloride dissolves in water to form a highly acidic solution with a pH value close to zero. The water molecules become even more strongly polarized than usual. As they are covalent chlorides. HCl is produced. Like the other covalent chlorides. In this case a mixture of hypochlorous acid. Popper believed that scientists should not focus on finding conditions where a law is confirmed but on finding a way to prove it false.

It reacts with the water to produce hypochlorous acid. Remember that Mendeleev refused to reject his periodic law hypothesis even when his results showed repeatedly there was no periodic variation.

Compounds containing hypochlorite ions also an effective killer of bacteria are used in home swimming pools. Ca OCl 2. One person who thought it was strange to design experiments in order to confirm the effects of an already known theory or law was the Austrian science philosopher Karl Popper — Theory of knowledge As part of your internally assessed experimental work you will design and carry out experiments to confirm the theories and laws studied in class.

Many of the compounds added to keep swimming pools clear and clean contain chlorine. In a large public swimming pool. What would you do? Chloramines cause an unpleasant chlorine odour and eye irritation to swimmers. The power of the hypochlorite ion as an oxidizing agent is also used in swimming pool chemistry when it is added to remove chloramines that form when chlorine reacts with ammonia and nitrogen compounds e. These include calcium hypochlorite.

In fact many important discoveries have occurred because scientists refused to abandon experimental work when the results obtained did not match the original hypothesis.

If this law was tested over and over again. It was only later after much perseverance that he realized that this contradictory evidence was due to experimental error. Iron was one of the first metals extracted from its ore and made into tools.

The first row of d-block elements consists of those elements whose highest energy electrons are filling the 3d subshell. Section 3. The properties and uses of everyday materials were revolutionized. Cl2 b silicon chloride. When bronze. MgCl2 3. These d-block elements have played an important role in different cultural traditions over thousands of years.

Bronze was valued for its strength. The elements cobalt. Of these. Early Chinese ceramics and pottery were made from iron-rich clays. Bronze was used to make precious metalware vessels to hold food. The Bronze Age in China started in the 21st century bc and lasted about years. These elements are scandium.

It was also used in important ceremonies and to make musical instruments and armoury. The semiprecious stone turquoise contains the element copper and has been valued for thousands of years in the Middle East and Asia for its beauty. This distinction is due to the definition of a transition element as a d-block element that can form at least one stable ion with a partially filled d subshell. SiCl4 c magnesium chloride.

The scandium III ion. Most humans have about 10—20 mg in their bodies. The zinc II. Manganese has various functions within the human body.

If we consider the electron configurations of these d-block elements and the ions that they can form. Chem complement Manganese in your diet Manganese is an essential trace element found in the human body.

Sources of manganese in the diet include raspberries. Most of this is concentrated in the pancreas. In the case of scandium and zinc. It is an enzyme activator that helps to create fatty acids and cholesterol. It has been suggested that a diet high in berries is useful in reducing susceptibility to cancerous growths.

It also helps to promote normal nerve function. It helps to strengthen bones. Recall from chapter 1 that when ions of first row d-block elements are formed electrons are first lost from the 4s subshell before the 3d subshell. From titanium to manganese. You will recall that the 4s subshell is filled before the 3d subshell because an empty 4s subshell is lower in energy than the 3d subshell.

In addition to this property. For this interchange to occur. Variable oxidation states Transition elements can form ions with a variety of oxidation states oxidation numbers. This is possible because these subshells are very close to each other in energy.

In examining the d-block elements thus far. This can be used in redox titrations. They are good conductors of electricity and heat. The variation in oxidation states is easily recognizable in many transition elements by a change in colour of the new compound. Iron is used widely for construction of bridges. Physical properties The d-block elements are all metals. Chromium is used for plating less-attractive metals while maintaining their strength.

With the exception of mercury. Copper is most valuable for its excellent conduction of electricity and as a unreactive. They have physical properties that are typical of metals. As the activation energy is lowered. Catalytic properties uncatalysed reaction catalysed reaction energy A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction by providing an alternate reaction pathway with a lower activation energy. Due to their high surface energies.

The catalyst itself is not consumed. Many transition metals and their compounds show catalytic activity and they are widely used in industry.

This attraction at the surface of the catalyst weakens the bonds within the reactant molecules. Collisions with other molecules are now more likely to overcome the activation energy for the reaction. The vegetable oils used for making margarines are refined as liquids that are high in unsaturated fatty acids.

By maximising the surface area of the catalyst. Biological catalysts are better known as enzymes. Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of red. This process is similar to the hydrogenation of ethene to form ethane: Reactive atoms migrate toward each other. This weakens the bonds between N and O atoms within the molecules. Nickel is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of alkenes to form alkanes. To increase the melting point of the mixture.

A practical application of this process is in the manufacture of margarine. The rate at which oxygen is released is dramatically increased and easily re-lights a glowing splint. NO and NO2 are broken down into harmless compounds. Alloys of platinum and rhodium are used in the catalytic converters of car exhaust systems. N2 g O2 g Gas molecules desorb from catalyst surface. Metal alloys mixtures of the metal with one or more other elements made from such elements are often plated in a very thin layer over a honeycombed surface of an inert material such as aluminium or silica.

Without a catalyst. An example of this is found in the Contact process for making sulfuric acid. The vanadium V oxide. In the laboratory the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide can be catalysed by a number of inorganic catalysts. The vanadium V oxide is an oxidizing agent and oxidizes the sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide.

In catalysis. By using trays of pellets. The vanadium IV oxide is then oxidized by oxygen to reform vanadium V oxide.

Hemoglobin is the oxygencarrying protein attached to red blood cells. Homogeneous catalysts are in the same phase as the reactants and products. A lack of hemoglobin results in anemia due to a lack of oxygen reaching the cells of the body. Cobalt atoms bond to different parts of the vitamin B12 structure. Its decomposition is catalysed by the enzyme catalase. Many of the important industrial processes making chemicals such as sulfuric acid and ammonia rely on heterogeneous catalysts to overcome the disadvantage of having to use lower than ideal temperatures in order to produce satisfactory yields at equilibrium.

Catalysts are often grouped according to their phase in comparison to the reactions with which they are involved. Heterogeneous catalysts are in a different state to the reactants. During the Contact process sulfur dioxide. At low temperatures. Hydrogen peroxide is a toxin in the human body. At a cost of about twice that of gold for the alloy. In the first stage of this process. At high temperatures. Chem Complement The Ostwald process An example of a solid catalyst in action is seen in the Ostwald process.

In the German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald — invented a process for converting industrial quantities of ammonia into nitric acid.

Nitric acid HNO3 is an important raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers. This swift passage prevents the nitrogen monoxide from decomposing to N2 and O2 and consequently being lost. Ostwald was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work on catalysts and chemical equilibria.

The wire mesh catalyst may remain functional for up to 6 months. The wire gauze Figure 3. Common ligands that are neutral molecules include water. The ions and small polar molecules attracted to the transition metal cation are called ligands.

Negative ions that can be ligands include the chloride ion. A ligand has an electron pair that it can donate to the central metal ion. Typically two to six ligands may surround a transition metal ion in a complex. A sample of at least five per subject at each level from a school will also be graded by a moderator appointed by the IB, in a process called external moderation of internal assessment.

Based on this moderation, the grades of the whole subject from that school will change. Up to three additional points are awarded depending on the grades achieved in the extended essay and theory of knowledge, so the maximum possible point total in the IBDP is Candidates must also receive a minimum of 12 points from their Higher Level subjects and a minimum of 9 points from their Standard Level subjects. The Candidates with Special Assessment Needs publication contains information regarding procedures and arrangements for students with special needs.

At the end of the application process, IB conducts an authorisation visit. Australia Although every university in Australia accepts the IB diploma, entry criteria differ from university to university.

Some universities accept students on their IB point count, whereas others require the points to be converted. Admission decisions are at the discretion of higher education institutions. Students must have either Group 1 or 2 or both at HL; mathematics Standard Level minimum; and at least one science or mathematics course at Higher Level. However, the Ministry of Education may grant partial equivalence to national diploma for students who have satisfactorily completed the fourth year of high school in the country.

The Russian Ministry of Education considers the IB diploma issued by state-accredited IB schools in Russia equivalent to the certificate of secondary complete general education attestat. University requirements are as follows: three HL subjects with scores of 5 or better, two SL subjects with scores of 4 or better, and a grade of 4 or better in English A, Standard Level. As of 1 June , IB diploma holders no longer need to pass the University Entrance Examination to be admitted to Spanish universities.

After the conversion the IB diploma is treated the same as grades from the Swedish education system. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway. WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online. Don't have an account? Your Web browser is not enabled for JavaScript. Some features of WorldCat will not be available. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: Search WorldCat Find items in libraries near you.

Advanced Search Find a Library. Your list has reached the maximum number of items. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items. Your request to send this item has been completed. APA 6th ed. Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.

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Hemoglobin is the oxygencarrying protein attached to red blood cells. Werner Heisenberg proposed that the dual nature of matter places a limitation on how precisely we can know the location of a subatomic particle such as an electron.

The nature of the oxides changes across a period and Table 3. In a covalent bond between two different atoms, the atoms do not attract the electron pair in the bond equally.